Title Text: Understanding the Work of Nursing Theorists: A Creative Beginning Crane Photo
  Table of Contents

Part I Introduction to Theory in Nursing
1 What is Nursing Theory? 3
2 Why are Theories Important in Nursing? 7
3 The Development of Nursing Theories 11
4 Evaluating a Theory 17

Part II Theories that Define Nursing or Discuss Nursing in a General Sense (Philosophies)
5 Using the Art of Georges Seurat to Envision Philosophies 21
6 Florence Nightingale's Definition of Nursing 27
7 Virginia Hendersons's Definition of Nursing 33
8 Ernestine Widenbach's Helping Art of Clinical Nursing 41
9 Jean Watson's Theory of Human/Transpersonal Caring 49

Part III Theories about Broad Nursing Practice Areas: Grand Theories
10 Envisioning Theories through Mandala Art 59
11 Myra Estrin Levine's Conservation Model 63
12 Betty Neuman's Systems Model 69
13 Sister Callista Roy's Adaptation Model 77
14 Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Model 85
15 Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory 93

Part IV Theories about Specific Nursing Actions, Processes, or Concepts: Middle-Range Theories
16 Envisioning Theories through Origami Art 103
17 Ida Jean Orlando-Pelletier's Nursing Process Theory 109
18 Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort 117
19 Nola Pender's Health-Promotion Model 123
20 Hildegard Peplau's Interpersonal Relations in Nursing 131

Part V Theories that Defy Classification
21 Envisioning Theories that Defy Classification through Space Photography 139
22 Martha Rogers's Unitary Human Beings 143
23 Margaret Newman's Health as Expanding Consciousness 151

Part VI Conclusion
24 Further Development of Nursing Theory 159
25 Use of Information Technology by Nurse Theorists 163

References 169
Glossary 173